3633af8379f20bdb3907ea8c9bd6d8c5.jpeg

Marijuana Contains

It’s big news, set to shock, amaze, and entertain the world.

But unfortunately, it’s got nothing to do with extraterrestrial stoners melding with Earth’s plants.

However, since you’re now reading, you’ll almost certainly be interested in this research that looked into the clicking and sharing behaviors of social media users reading content (or not) and then sharing it on social media.

We here at IFLS noticed long ago that many of our followers will happily like, share and offer an opinion on an article – all without ever reading it. We’re not the only ones to notice this. Last April, NPR shared an article on their Facebook page which asked “Why doesn’t America read anymore?”. The joke, of course, is that there was no article. They waited to see if their followers would weigh in with an opinion without clicking the link, and they weren’t disappointed.

Screenshot courtesy of Gawker

We’ve been hoping for a chance to try it ourselves, and this seemed like the perfect opportunity. Yacklerhad some fun with the same article and managed to fool a bunch of people.

A group of computer scientists at Columbia University and the French National Institute looked into a dataset of over 2.8 million online news articles that were shared via Twitter.The study found that up to 59 percent of links shared on Twitter have never actually been clicked by that persons followers, suggesting that social media users are more into sharing content than actually clicking on and reading it.

People are more willing to share an article than read it, the studys co-author Arnaud Legout said in a statement, Washington Post reports. This is typical of modern information consumption. People form an opinion based on a summary, or a summary of summaries, without making the effort to go deeper.

This study looks into the psychology behind what makes people want to share content. Research conducted byThe New York Times Customer Insight Group looked into what motivates people to share information. Just under half of the people asked in the survey said they share information on social media to inform people and to enrich those around them. Conversely, they found 68 percent share to reinforce and project a certain image of themselves in a sense, to define themselves.

In the words of one participant from the study: I try to share only information that will reinforce the image Id like to present: thoughtful, reasoned, kind, interested and passionate about certain things.

It also raises the question of whether online media is just a massiveecho chamber, where we all just like pages and viewpoints that reinforce our own beliefs and are not interested in information for the sake of information. Even the algorithms of social media sites meanthat individuals or pages that you tend to click on, like, or share which are most often the articles or viewpoints that you agree with will more frequently turn up on your News Feed.

As a user of online media, youre probably quite aware of this.

Take a look at any comment on social media pages, including those, of course, on the IFLScience Facebook page. Its particularly noticeable on the more emotive and controversial of subjects; think climate change, GMOs, vaccinations, aliens, and a lot of our articles on marijuana, where the top comments often repeat or question something that is fairly explicitly in the article, but not the headline.

Just this week, our article about capuchins monkeys entering the stone age was met with many of the top comments on the Facebook postpointing out theyve done this for hundreds of years, despite that beingthe first thing the article said if you read it.Although from our analytics it’s impossible to see which users did not click through to the article yet shared it, there is fairly often a slightly fine discrepancy between shares and page views which doesn’t quite add up, especially on those buzz subjects.

So, if you are one of the lucky few who managed to click and read this article, we congratulate you! Although we do apologize for the misleading headline. In the meanwhile, have fun sharing the article and seeing who manages to chair a discussion on marijuana genetics, without ever reading it.

 

Read more: http://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/marijuana-contains-alien-dna-from-outside-of-our-solar-system-nasa-confirms/

8ed1c8f4f3ecd56f3e9225ef543af62f.jpeg

1 year later, the Ice Bucket Challenge funds this breakthrough in ALS research.

Remember the Ice Bucket Challenge?

Of course you do. It was that viral video campaign that took off last summer where you’d log into Facebook and see a steady stream of your friends dumping water on themselves in the name of awareness and research for the ALS Association.

For science! Brrrrrr. Photo by Clive Mason/Getty Images.

Some brushed the movement off as an example of “slacktivism,” but it actually helped raise more than $100 million. When you compare it to the $2.8 million raised by the organization during the same period a year earlier, it’s clear that the Ice Bucket challenge paid off.

ALS, also known as amyotrophic laterals sclerosis or Lou Gehrig’s Disease, affects an estimated 30,000 living people at any given time.

It’s a disorder that affects nerve and muscle function. Just 20% of those with the disease will live more than five years following diagnosis. It’s brutal.

But there’s good news due, in part, to the money raised by the Ice Bucket Challenge.

While that man doesn’t seem to be having such a great time, I really need to find out what kind of seemingly IBC-proof makeup the woman on the left is using. Photo by Scott Barbour/Getty Images.

During a reddit “Ask Me Anything” session, ALS researcher Jonathan Ling unveiled a major breakthrough in his work.

Ling wanted to do an “Ask Me Anything” to debunk some of the negative things being said by skeptics about the success of the Ice Bucket Challenge.

“I mainly wanted to do this [“Ask Me Anything”] because I remember reading a lot of stories about people complaining that the ice bucket challenge was a waste and that scientists weren’t using the money to do research, etc. I assure you that this is absolutely false,” Ling writes.

“All of your donations have been amazingly helpful and we have been working tirelessly to find a cure. With the amount of money that the ice bucket challenge raised, I feel that there’s a lot of hope and optimism now for real, meaningful therapies.”

So what’s the big breakthrough? Well, it has to do with protein or rather, one specific protein.

Ling’s research focuses on TDP-43, a protein in cells that’s he’s been able to link to ALS.

Ling breaks down the purpose of TDP-43 with an analogy involving a library that’s easy for us non-scientist types to understand:

“DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell. You can think of a nucleus as a library except that instead of having books neatly lined up on shelves, the books in a nucleus have all of their pages ripped out and thrown around randomly.

To sort through this mess, the cell has great librarians that go around collecting all these pages, collating them and neatly binding them together as books. These librarians then ship these ‘books’ out of the nucleus so that other workers in the cell can do their jobs. Think of these books as instruction manuals.

TDP-43 is a very special type of librarian. TDP-43’s job is to ensure that nucleus librarians don’t accidentally make a mistake and put a random nonsense page (usually filled with gibberish) into the books that they ship out. If one of these nonsense pages makes it into an ‘instruction manual,’ the workers in the cell get really confused and mess things up. For terminology, we call these nonsense pages ‘cryptic exons.'”

His team found that in 97% of ALS cases, TDP-43 wasn’t doing its job. And now that they know this, they’ve been able to begin work on new therapies to do TDP-43’s job for it. If successful, he believes this can slow down the progression of the disease.

How cool is that?

Baseball Hall-of-Famer Lou Gehrig became the face of ALS after he tearfully retired from baseball upon diagnosis. Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images.

But what about the other 3%? Well, we don’t have all the answers just yet.

One redditor asked that question, and essentially, it boils down to the fact that ALS is still pretty unpredictable. While TDP-43 may play a large part in the disease’s progression, it’s not the whole picture. For those individuals for whom ALS runs in the family, that seems to be linked to a gene called SOD1, and not TDP-43.

That’s why research needs to continue.

“When you look at ALS from a genetics perspective, about 10% of the cases are called ‘familial’, [that is], lots of people in the family have ALS and it seems to be passed down. The other 90% of ALS appears to occur completely by unfortunate chance and we call that ‘sporadic.’

As researchers, we look to the genetics for clues to study the disease. One of the first family-linked genes discovered was a gene called SOD1 that is found in about 30% of familial cases. But it’s starting to seem like SOD1 is an outlier because TDP-43 doesn’t seem to be messed up. Instead, SOD1 seems to clump together due to the mutation. We get the 3% because 30% of 10% familial is 3%.” Ling

But yeah, this is pretty neat, exciting stuff!

Ling hopes to have therapies based on his research making their way to clinical trials within the next two-three years.

And from there, who knows? Maybe this is the breakthrough that sets up the next big step in finding a cure for this absolutely ruthless disorder. 76 years after it first entered the public consciousness with Lou Gehrig’s emotional farewell speech, a cure feels closer than ever before.

Last year, we shared a video by Anthony Carbajal, a man who had been recently diagnosed with ALS.

ALS runs in Carbajal’s family. His grandmother, his mother, and he have all been diagnosed with the disorder. His Ice Bucket Challenge video was powerful because it put a face to the research and the desperation for a cure.

GIF via Anthony Carbajal.

The research made possible by the Ice Bucket Challenge gives hope to people like Anthony. It’s just so important.

Saying that 30,000 people live with ALS doesn’t mean a whole lot until you see the pain it causes those living with it and watching their loved ones do battle. When you watch Anthony’s video, his tears welling up in his eyes, it’s clear just how much the world needed something like the Ice Bucket Challenge to fund the research we need to put an end to ALS once and for all.

Read more: http://www.upworthy.com/1-year-later-the-ice-bucket-challenge-funds-this-breakthrough-in-als-research?c=tpstream

Ever wonder “How to get my book reviewed”?

reading books
Book Reading/Image Source: Pixabay

So you’ve published your book. Its been edited and published, and now you’re trying to figure out how to get to your potential readers. While starting your marketing campaign usually happens well before your book is finished, getting your first reviews can’t begin until your book is done or in a final draft status.

Many stores won’t carry a small press or self-published book that doesn’t have reviews from a recognizable publication. So how do you get someone to pay attention to your book among all of the hundreds, if not thousands, of books they see every month?

City Book Review, publishers of the San Francisco Book Review, Manhattan Book Review and Kids’ BookBuzz all have programs to help you. Kids BookBuzz is only for kids, tweens and young adult books, but the other two will take almost any book you have (including children’s stories).

So how do you get your book reviewed by the San Francisco Book Review?

If your book is within 90 days of the publications date, you can submit it for general review (at no cost). The closer you are to the 90 days, the less of a chance it will have to be reviewed, but you can still begin there. The SFBR gets more than 1000 books a month, and only reviews 300 or less, so your chances of getting your book reviewed in this way is less than 33%. But you can give it a try and see if it gets reviewed.

General Submission Guidelineshttp://www.sanfranciscobookreview.com/submission-guidelines/general-submission/

If your book is more than 90 days past its publication date, or you really want to have it reviewed and don’t want to just hope it’ll get picked up through the general review, you can go through the Sponsored Review program. While there is some controversy about paying for a review, SFBR is a respected publication like Kirkus or Foreward Reviews and doesn’t provide vanity reviews for payment. You can expect the same level of professionalism from their standard reviews. And they don’t mark sponsored reviews any different than the other reviews.

Get My Book Reviewed from the San Francisco Book Reviewhttp://sanfranciscobookreview.com/submission-guidelines/sponsored-review/

Get My Book Reviewed from the San Francisco Book Review

There are a lot of different options for getting your book reviewed, mostly around how long it takes to get your review back, and if you want more than one or an interview as well.

  • Standard Reviews Take 8-10 weeks for turnaround from the time they receive your book Start at
  • Expedited Reviews Take 3-5 weeks for turnaround from the time they receive your book Start at
  • Get more than one review for the same book you’ll get a discount on the normal cost of 2 or 3 reviews. Reviews range in price from $150 to $299.
  • Getting a podcast interview for Audible Authors to promote yourself and your book, and you can add an interview to a review package at a discount.

And if you really like your review, you can have it posted on the other publication’s website for $99, or get a new review from a different reviewer. Both can help with your marketing and search engine optimization.

So how do you get your book reviewed by the Manhattan Book Review?

The Manhattan Book Review uses the same format for the San Francisco Book Review. Different audience, so if you’re an East Coast author, you might be more interested in having the credit from MBR over SFBR. Personal taste is the only difference between the two for reviews. If you are a local SF or Manhattan author, they will also flag that in your review.

General Review Submission Guidelines for the Manhattan Book Reviewhttp://manhattanbookreview.com/get-my-book-reviewed/general-submission/

Sponsored Review Submission Guidelines for the Manhattan Book Reviewhttp://manhattanbookreview.com/get-my-book-reviewed/sponsored-reviews/

So how do you get your book reviewed by Kids’ BookBuzz?

First thing, all of the reviews for Kids’ BookBuzz are done by kids. They are select age appropriate books, but the kids read them and write the reviews themselves. The younger kids have some help from their parents, but the words are all theirs. Don’t expect any easy reviews either. These kids see a lot of books, so they know good books when they read them.

General Submission Guidelines for Kids’ BookBuzzhttp://kidsbookbuzz.com/get-my-book-reviewed-by-a-kid/general-submission/

Sponsored Review Submission Guidelines for Kids’ BookBuzzhttp://kidsbookbuzz.com/get-my-book-reviewed-by-a-kid/sponsored-reviews/

‘People are hungry for real bookstores': Judy Blume on why US indie booksellers are growing

At 78, the multimillion-selling author has begun a new career, opening her own bookshop and joining a business sector thats flourishing again in the US

She might be a beloved and bestselling author of classic childrens books from Forever to Blubber, but Judy Blume says she wakes up every day and I look to the sky, and I say, whoevers up there, I thank you for not having to write today.

Blume doesnt have to write because, at 78, she has embarked on a new career: shes an independent bookseller. Together with her husband, George Cooper, she has opened a small, nonprofit bookshop in Key West, Florida, where shes working almost every day. And shes loving it. She had planned to take a gap year after she finished writing and promoting her last novel, In the Unlikely Event. I was going to relax and read and have this whole time with no pressure. And then bingo the chance comes along to open a bookshop, and there you go. I guess I like that in my life To learn something new like this, at 78, makes it all the more exciting.

Blume and Cooper had been urging Mitchell Kaplan, founder of independent book chain Books & Books, to open a bookshop in Key West for years. He told them that if they could find a space, he would partner with them. They found a corner store, part of a large deco building , and with help from Kaplan and his team, Books & Books @ the Studios of Key West opened in February.

A

A very satisfying experience … Judy Blume behind the tills at Books & Books @ Key West. Photograph: Penguin Random House

Weve done better than anyone, including Mitch, thought we could do, says Blume, down the line from Florida. It has been a very satisfying experience Writing In the Unlikely Event took five years it was very long and difficult and complicated. This is just a great change for me, and I am enjoying it so much.

Customers, she says, sometimes recognise her an author who has sold more than 80m books around the world and theyre completely taken aback, especially if Im sitting there dusting the shelves. Im pretty good at recommendations Im good in the kids department for sure. I read all the picture books when they come in. And I can lead people to what they want, although Ive not read as many of our books as some of our volunteers [the store has two paid employees, as well as Cooper, Blume and a series of volunteers]. Im trying really hard to keep up. Its like Christmas every day, working here.

Business for independent bookstores in America in general, is going well, Blume believes. I just think people are so hungry for a real bookstore again. So many people live in places where there isnt one Its not just us doing well. A lot of independent booksellers are.

The figures back her up. At BookExpo America last week, the American Booksellers Association announced that for the seventh year in a row, its bookstore membership has gone up, to 1,775 members operating in 2,311 locations, up from 1,401 members operating in 1,651 locations in 2009. The lions share of these are independents, says the ABA: in 2015, sales for independent booksellers were up just over 10%, and are remaining strong in 2016. In the UK by contrast, the Booksellers Association recorded 894 independent bookshops in 2015, a decrease of 3% from 2014. A decade ago, there were more than 1,500.

Independent bookselling in the US is continuing not just to grow, but to thrive, says ABA chief executive Oren Teicher, who attributes the growth to various factors: the localism movement, which is exploding, and we are benefiting from that; booksellers getting smarter at using technology; publishers increasing acknowledgment that customers discover books in bricks and mortar locations [so] our colleagues in publishing have figured out that they need bricks and mortar stores as much as we need their books; and the growing role of the bookseller as curator, in a world flooded with new titles.

The resurgence of print has also helped, says Teicher. A recent report in the UK revealed that in 2015, sales of printed books were up by 0.4% to 2.76bn, while ebook sales fell for the first time in the seven years the Publishers Association has tracked them, down 1.6% to 554m in 2015. In the US, the Association of American Publishers reported last month that while overall sales for consumer books were up 0.8% to $7.2bn (4.9bn) in 2015, ebook sales declined, down 9.5% in adult books and 43.3% in children and young adult titles.

Five years ago in the American book business, there was a widespread panic that somehow digital reading was going to replace physical books and they would be a relic of some other time and place. Fast forward to today, and I think digital reading has levelled off and calmed down slightly. Its going to be a piece of our business, but print books arent going away. Were living in a hybrid world, says Teicher.

Added together, these ingredients make the recipe for our success, says Teicher. But there is still a very modest margin in books, and people have to work really hard. We have significant challenges before us, clouds on the horizon that could interfere with our success.

These range from pressure on wages and rents, he says, to the 1,000lb gorilla the continued growth of online shopping. But independents are extraordinarily resilient, he says. If I had a penny for every time weve been counted out, Id be a pretty rich guy today.

Read more: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/20/people-are-hungry-for-real-bookstores-judy-blume-on-why-us-indie-booksellers-are-thriving

15+ Reading Nooks Perfect For When You Need To Escape This World

Although some people claim that they can read anywhere, anytime, we all know that a comfortable, well lit, soft spot is ideal. On a blanket in a park is one such perfect spot; on dry, spongy moss, under a tree, is another good location. But what happens if you’re a city dweller (or not even!), and outdoor reading spots are at a premium?

Bored Panda has collected this list of reading nooks for you, those indoor bookworms that maybe like to read outside, but who also need a comfortable place inside to get the pages turning. Which reading nook looks most comfortable to you? Vote, or submit a picture of your own reading nook below! (h/t)

 

#1 Cozy Reading Nook

Report

Read more: http://www.boredpanda.com/cozy-reading-nooks-book-corner/